C C P Concours Communs Polytechniques :
Nationwide Polytechnic Competitive Entrance Examinations
C G E Conférence des Grandes Ecoles :
Non-profit association grouping together various Engineering, Management and multiple or specific higher education establishments (the Grandes Ecoles), all officially recognised by the French government and awarding a national diploma marking the successful conclusion of at least five years study after the Baccalauréat.
C P G E Classes Préparatoires aux Grandes Ecoles :
Preparatory class for the competitive entrance examinations for Grandes Ecoles
C T I Commission des Titres d'Ingénieurs :
Official accreditation body of the French Ministry of Education for engineers
Created by the 10 July 1934 Act covering the conditions under which the title of engineering graduate can be awarded and exercised, the Commission des Titres d'Ingénieur was duly confirmed as the Examining Authority by the French Code of Education, book 6, title 4, chapter 2 (fourth section):
* to study any issues pertaining to engineering training, in any field,
* to examine applications for accreditation to award engineering graduate degrees,
* to organise the periodic evaluation of engineering training: accreditation of establishments for a fixed period, which was first tried out between 1990 and 1995, is now widespread. Henceforth, all training accreditation is granted for a maximum period of six years and is renewed after an in-depth evaluation organised by the Commission des Titres d'Ingénieur.
* to decide whether to intervene on its own initiative, to carry out an inspection of any establishment in order to verify the content and organisation of training.
The Commission des Titres d'Ingénieur has 32 members. Half of these are made up of representatives from higher education and delegates chosen for their scientific and technical expertise. The other half represents various organisations in the business world. This evenly-balanced composition thus brings together representatives from engineering schools, experts, and representatives from business, the main trade union organisations and engineering professional bodies.
D E A The Diplôme d'études approfondies [Advanced Studies Degree], university post-graduate level par excellence, usually precedes a Doctorate.
Like the DESS, the DEA (five years of higher education) is being replaced by the Master, a crucial element of the LMD (Licence Master Doctorate) reforms.
D E S S The DESS, diplôme d'études spécialisées [Higher Specialised Studies Degree, is the vocational university degree option. It is characterised by tuition from a teaching staff consisting of both teachers and practitioners, and involves a long period of placement to gain work experience (3 to 6 months).
In the context of the LMD reforms, it is currently being superseded by the Master, also representing five years of higher education.
ECTS European Credit Transfer System.
This designation is used to identify the various milestones along the LMD path.
EPESR Etablissement Public d'Enseignement Supérieur et de Recherche :
Public Higher Education and Research Establishment
EPSCP Etablissements Publics à caractère Scientifique, Culturels et Professionnels [Public Scientific, Cultural and Professional Establishments :
- National Polytechnic Institutes,
- Non-university institutes and schools,
- French schools abroad...
FESIC (concours) Competitive entry examination for the Fédération d'Ecoles Supérieures d'Ingénieurs et de Cadres [Federation of Engineering and Executive Grandes Ecoles]
G E A Groupe des Ecoles Aéronautiques et Spatiales de France :
Group of French Aeronautics and Space Technology schools
This group includes ENAC (Ecole Nationale de l'Aviation Civile, the French Civil Aviation University), ENSICA (Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Ingénieurs de Constructions Aéronautiques, the National College of Aerospace Engineering), SUPAERO (Ecole Nationale Supérieure de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace, the National College for Aeronautics and Space) and ENSMA (Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et d'Aérotechnique, the National College of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering).
G M P Génie Mécanique Productique :
Industrial automation engineering
IELTS If you are planning to emigrate or apply to a university in another country, the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) enables you to determine your proficiency in English and thus satisfy any necessary entry conditions.
- internationally recognised,
- available in 106 countries,
- accepted or required by many universities in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and Canada,
- quick: results are provided within a week of taking the test,
- open to all applicants aged 16 or over.
There are two versions of the test:
- Academic: if you plan to apply for a place at a university in another country,
- General: if you are emigrating, planning to follow a non-university training programme overseas, or intending to work abroad.
IT Information Technologies
L M D An international reform
This involves reforms undertaken at the European level (the Bologna Process, initiated in 1999) to restructure all university degrees in order to make the entire European higher education curriculum compatible and encourage student mobility. Forty countries made the decision to standardise their degrees between 2002 and 2010.
Studies are broken down into three stages.
Each level of study or grade is reached by acquiring ECTS (European Credit Transfer System) credits, 30 ECTS credits per semester, rather than through the validation of a number of years of study.
- A Bachelor's degree (Licence, three years of higher education) is validated by obtaining 180 credits.
- A Masters's degree (five years of higher education) is validated by obtaining 120 ECTS credits after the Licence. It replaces the Maîtrise and the DEA and DESS post-graduate level and may relate to one of two fields of study, vocational or research, with the possibility of changing from one to the other.
- A Doctoral degree is attainable after the Master.
Organised by Teaching Units (UE – Unités d’enseignement)
The system is regulated by teaching units. Each is worth a certain number of credits and corresponds to the number of hours of work (classes, tutorials, practical work, private study) that the student must accomplish in order to obtain his/her degree.
Adoption of semesters
- The Licence is broken down into six semesters.
- The Master is organised into four semesters.
Thirty credits are assigned to each semester.
Henceforth, we refer to credits and not years, to identify the different levels. Credits represent a number of hours of classes, tutorials (TD), practical work (TP) or private study. They can also be used to validate training courses, voluntary work or trips abroad.
The validation of a student's knowledge (continual assessment, examinations, etc) in a subject is accompanied by the awarding of credits (credits per semester). These are internationally recognised and:
- are transferable within France and Europe;
- represent permanently-valid academic credits, regardless of the duration of the educational courses.
Laurea (L) Italian universitary degree equivalent to Bachelor (3 years higher education).
Laurea Specialistica (LS) Italian universitary degree equivalent to Master's degree (5 years higher education)
LOGSE Ley de ordinacion General de Systemas Education
M B A For a time, the Master of Business Administration was the exclusive preserve of American universities. Nowadays, this kind of education is widespread, particularly in Europe and Asia.
Some training in this category has been accredited by quality certification organisations, which in Europe include: EQUIS (European Foundation for Management Development) and AMBA (Association of MBAs).
M I A G E Méthodes Informatiques Appliquées à la Gestion des Entreprises :
Master's degree in computer studies applied to management
Master Since the LMD reforms began, the Master has been understood to mean two things:
- firstly a grade (five years of higher education) marking the successful conclusion of one of the elements of the LMD progression.
- also a degree awarded by business and engineering schools, generally "non-consular", meaning that it is independent of any chamber of commerce and industry.
Mastère spécialisé (French System) The Specialised Mastère is not a degree but a qualification awarded solely by the Conférence des Grandes Ecoles member establishments.
It is awarded only to a selected few.
There are currently around 300 holders of Specialised Mastère, more or less equally distributed among the various engineering and business schools.
MEng Master of Engineering degree
MPhys Master of Physics
PhD Philosophiae Doctor
S I G Systèmes d'Informations Géographiques :
Geographical Information Systems, GIS
S T I Sciences et Techniques Industrielles :
Industrial Science and Technologies
Sciences et Techniques de l'Ingénieur :
Engineering Sciences and Technologies
Specializing Master (Italian System) The "Specializing Master" is a scientific perfection qualification that you can acquire if you have a three year degree (I level specializing masters) or a five year degree (II level specializing master). It is possible to participate both in the I and II level masters with the old degree system. In order to obtain a master qualification you must follow a course that is equivalent to a minimum of 60 credits.
A "Specializing Master" is a point of connection between industry and university that allows one to enter the world of work through an education offer that can fill a niche. The masters course is a flexible university course of higher value than a degree as it allows a specific professional figure to be formed (I level specializing master), or to attain a higher specialisation (II level specializing master).
T O E F L Test of English as a Foreign Language
The TEST OF ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE (TOEFL) aims to determine the proficiency in English for any non-native English speaker. Most colleges and universities in the United States and English-speaking parts of Canada use TOEFL results in their foreign student admissions procedures. Moreover, a number of companies use TOEFL results when recruiting non-native English-speaking employees. TOEFL was created by the Educational Testing Service (ETS), a private organisation based in Princeton, New Jersey, which is currently responsible for developing and managing the tests.
Since 1998, computers have been used to conduct TOEFL tests in Europe (http://www.ets.org/toefl). The TOEFL CBT (Computer Based Test) lasts approximately 4.5 hours. It consists of four parts, each in the form of multiple choice questions (MCQ): Listening (oral comprehension), Structure (grammar), Reading (written comprehension) and Writing (written expression).
The results of a TOEFL test are given according to a scale. Generally, a score of 600 is deemed as excellent, whereas 400 or less is considered to be inadequate.
Following the examination a certificate is awarded, which is valid for two years for overseas universities.
U E The Unité d'enseignement (Teaching Unit) is an integral part of the various grades in the LMD educational curriculum.
Each UE is worth a certain number of ECTS credits and marks a student's accomplishment of a particular number of hours of work (classes, tutorials, practical work, and private study).
U F R Unité de Formation et de Recherche :
Research and Training Unit
V A E Validation des Acquis de l'Expérience :
Accreditation of Prior Learning, APL